What does the process of computer development mean

What is the development process of computers?

1. The first generation was the electron tube computer, started in 1946, structured around a central processor, using machine language, with a small amount of storage, mainly used for numerical calculations.

2. The second generation was the transistor computer, started in 1958, structured around a memory, using a high-level programming language, and expanding application areas to include data processing and industrial control.

3. The third generation is a small and medium-sized integrated circuit computers, began in 1964, this generation of computers is still memory-centered, machine type diversification, serialization, external devices continue to increase, expanding the function, the function of the software is further improved, in addition to numerical calculations and data processing, has been able to deal with the image, text and other information.

4. The fourth generation is the large-scale and ultra-large-scale integrated circuit computers, began in 1971, the scope of application is very broad, has penetrated into many aspects of social life and production. Because of large-scale and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, the core components of the computer can be integrated in one or several chips, thus the emergence of microcomputers.

What is the development process of computers?

The first generation of computersThe electron-tube digital computerIn 1946, the world’s first electron-tube digital computer, the ENIAC, was used to calculate ballistics. It was manufactured by the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States, but it was huge, covering an area of more than 170 square meters, weighing about 30 tons and consuming nearly 100 kilowatts of electricity. Obviously, such a computer was costly and inconvenient to use. The original computer, invented by John von Neumann (at that time the computers’ computing power was equivalent to that of today’s calculators), was the size of three storerooms, and was gradually developed.

The second generation of computers transistor computer in 1954, the United States, Bell Labs developed the world’s first successful use of transistor lines of computers, named “catalytic Dick” (TRADIC), equipped with 800 transistors. Transistor computer was born, this is the second generation of electronic computers. Just a few larger cabinets could hold it, and the speed of computing was greatly increased.

Third-generation computer integrated circuit computer April 7, 1964, the United States IBM developed the world’s first successful use of integrated circuits of general-purpose computers, IBM360 system, which takes into account the application of scientific computation and transaction processing in two areas.  IBM360 series of computers is the earliest use of integrated circuits of the general-purpose computer series, which created a precedent for the use of integrated circuits in civilian computers, computers have since entered the integrated circuit era. Compared with the second generation of computers (transistorized computers), it is smaller in size, lower in price, more reliable, faster in calculation, and it takes into account both scientific computing and transaction processing applications. This is the earliest use of integrated circuits of general-purpose computer series, it created a precedent for the use of integrated circuits in civilian computers, computers have since entered the integrated circuit era. Compared with the second generation of computers (transistorized computers), it is smaller, less expensive, more reliable, faster computation.What appeared in 1959 was the third generation of integrated circuit computers.

The fourth generation of computersLarge-scale integrated circuit computersIn 1971, American Intel engineer ‘Ted. Hoff’ pointed out that the world’s first CPU ‘microprocessor 4004’, on the basis of which the birth of large-scale integrated circuit computers. The first stage is 1971 to 1973, microprocessors are 4004, 4040, 8008. 1971 Intel developed the MCS4 microcomputer (CPU 4040, four-bit machine). Later the MCS-8 model with 8008 as the core was introduced. The second stage is 1973 to 1977, the development and improvement of microcomputers. The microprocessors were 8080, 8085, M6800, Z80. The initial products were Intel’s MCS I-80 type (CPU 8080, eight-bit machine). In the later stage, there were TRS-80 (CPU as Z80) and APPLE-II (CPU as 6502), which were once popular in the world in the early 1980s.

What is the process of computer development?

In World War II, due to military needs, U.S. scientists developed the first electronic computer, which used a total of 18,000 electron tubes, with a total weight of 30 tons, and was capable of performing 5,000 additions or 400 multiplications per second.

After the invention of the transistor in 1949, the second generation of computers was born, using magnetic core memory as the memory, which can store programs, and the speed of arithmetic operations reached tens of thousands of times per second. Programming languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN appeared during this period, making computer programming easier and giving rise to new professions and software industries such as programmers, analysts, and computer systems specialists.

After the 1980s, ultra-large-scale integrated circuits could hold hundreds of thousands or even millions of components on a chip, making computers decreasing in size and price while increasing in functionality and reliability, with computing speeds of hundreds of millions of times per second.In 1981, IBM debuted a personal computer with programs for non-professionals and word-processing software that could be easily operated with a mouse for use in homes, offices, and schools.