History of the development of computers seeking pictures and text
History of the development of computers (a)
In 1945, the United States produced the first fully automated electronic digital computer, “ENIAC” (the acronym is ENIAC, which means ElectronicNumericalIntegratorandCalculator in Chinese). ElectronicNumericalIntegratorandCalculator, Chinese meaning electronic numerical integrator and calculator).
It is the U.S. Aberdeen Weapons Proving Ground in order to meet the calculation of ballistic needs and developed into.
The main inventors were electrical engineer J. Prespen Eckert and physicist Dr. John W. Mauchly.
The computer was delivered in February 1946 and served for nine years.
It used electron tubes as the basic components of the computer and was capable of performing 5,000 additions and subtractions per second.
It used 18,000 tubes, 10,000 capacitors, 7,000 resistors, a volume of 3,000 cubic feet, covering an area of 170 square meters, weighing 30 tons, power consumption of 140 to 150 kilowatts, is a veritable “behemoth”.
The introduction of the ENIAC machine has an epoch-making significance, indicating that the arrival of the computer era, in the next 40 years, computer technology has developed exceptionally rapid, in the history of human science and technology has not been a discipline can be compared with the speed of development of electronic computers.
The following is an introduction to the hardware structure of each generation of computers and the characteristics of the system:
One, the first generation (1946~1958): electron tube digital computer
The logic element of the computer using electron tubes, the main memory using mercury delay line, drums, cores; external memory using magnetic tapes; soft mainly using machine language, assembly language; Applications are mainly scientific computing.
It is characterized by large size, high power consumption, poor reliability, expensive, complex maintenance, but it laid the foundation for later computer technology.
The second generation (1958~1964): transistorized digital computers
The invention of the transistor to promote the development of computers, logic components after the use of transistors, the size of the computer is greatly reduced, the power consumption is reduced, the reliability of the computer than the first generation of computers, performance has been greatly improved.
The main memory uses magnetic cores, external memory has begun to use more advanced disk; software has developed greatly, a variety of high-level language and its compiler, but also the emergence of a batch processing-based operating system, applications to scientific computing and a variety of transaction processing, and began to be used for industrial control.
Third generation (1964~1971): integrated circuit digital computers
In the 1960s, the computer’s logic components using small and medium-sized integrated circuits (SSI, MSI), the computer’s size is more miniaturized, consume less power, higher reliability, performance than the 10th generation of computers and a great improvement in the performance of the computer, at this time. Small machines are also booming, the application field is expanding.
Magnetic cores were still used for main memory, and software was gradually improved, with new developments in time-sharing operating systems, conversational languages, and many other high-level languages.
Fourth generation (after 1971): large-scale integrated circuit digital computers
Computers use large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs) for both the logic elements and main memory.
The so-called large-scale integrated circuits are integrated circuits that integrate more than 1,000 to 2,000 transistors on a single piece of silicon, and their degree of integration has been increased by more than 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to medium- and small-scale integrated circuits.
This is when computers developed to the stage of miniaturization, very low power consumption and high reliability.
Large-scale integrated circuits to enable the military industry, space technology, atomic energy technology, the development of these areas of vigorous development of the computer puts forward higher requirements, a strong impetus to the unprecedented development of the computer industry.
With the rapid development of large-scale integrated circuit technology, computers in addition to the direction of the development of jumbo machines, but also towards the ultra-small machine and micro-computer direction to fly forward.
In late 1971, the world’s first microprocessor and microcomputer was born in Silicon Valley, south of San Francisco, USA, which created a new era of microcomputers.
Since then, a variety of microprocessors and microcomputers have sprung up and flooded the market, becoming the top sellers at the time.
This momentum continues today.
Particularly after the birth of the IBM-PC series of machines, almost unifying the world microcomputer market, a variety of compatible machines have also come out.
II. Modern computer stage (i.e., the traditional mainframe stage)
II. Modern computer stage (i.e., traditional mainframe stage)
The so-called modern computer refers to the use of advanced electronic technology to replace the old and backward mechanical or relay technology.
Modern computers have undergone more than half a century of development, the outstanding representatives of this period are the British scientist Turing and the Hungarian-American scientist von Neumann.
Turing’s contributions to the modern computer were mainly: the establishment of the theoretical model of the Turing machine and the development of the theory of computability; and the introduction of the Turing test, which defines machine intelligence.
Von Neumann’s contributions were mainly: the establishment of the basic structure of the modern computer, the von Neumann structure.
The characteristics can be summarized as follows:
(1) the use of a single processing component for computation, storage, and communication;
(2) the linear organization of the storage units as fixed lengths;
(3) the units of the storage space are directly addressable;
(4) the use of a machine language in which instructions are given by means of opcodes to accomplish simple operations;
(5) centralized sequential control of computation.
The principle of modern computer generation is mainly based on the different electronic devices used in computers to divide, which is commonly known as the four generations of tubes, transistors, integrated circuits, and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits.
Briefly describe the development of computers?
1, the first generation of computers (1946~1958) electron tubes as the basic electronic devices; the use of machine language and assembly language; mainly used in national defense and scientific computing; computing speed of a few thousand to tens of thousands of times per second.
2, the second generation of computers (1958~1964) transistors as the main devices; software operating systems and algorithmic languages; computing speed of tens of thousands of times per second to hundreds of thousands of times.
3, the third generation of computers (1964~1971) the general use of integrated circuits; the size of the reduced; computing speed of hundreds of thousands of times per second to several million times.
4, the fourth generation of computers (1971 ~ now) to large-scale integrated circuits as the main devices; computing speed of millions of times per second to hundreds of millions of times.
China’s computer development history:
From 1953 began research, to 1958 developed China’s first computer, in 1982, China developed a speed of 100 million times the Galaxy I, II type and other small series of machines.
What is the history of the development of computers
What is the history of the development of computers
A brief introduction to the history of the development of computers, computing tools used by mankind is with the development of production and social progress, from simple to complex, from low to high level of the development process, computing tools have appeared, such as the abacus, calculating ruler, hand-cranked mechanical computers, electro-mechanical computers and so on.
In 1946, the world’s first electronic digital computer (ENIAC) was born in the United States.
This computer with a total of more than 18,000 electricity in the tube composition, covering an area of 170m2, total weight of 30t, power consumption of 140kw, computing speed of 5,000 times per second can be added, 300 times multiplication.
Electronic computers in just over 50 years after the tube, transistor, integrated circuits (IC) and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI) in four stages of development, so that the computer’s size is getting smaller and smaller, more and more powerful, more and more affordable, more and more widely used, and is now towards the direction of the development of intelligent (fifth-generation) computers.
1. The first generation of electronic computers, the first generation of electricity in the computer from 1946 to 1958.
They were large, had low computing speeds, little storage capacity, and were expensive.
It was also inconvenient to use, and it is difficult to express the complexity of the programs prepared to solve a problem.
This generation of computers was mainly used for scientific calculations, only in important departments or scientific research.
2. The second generation of electronic computers the second generation of computers is from 1958 to 1965, they all use the transistor as an electronic device, its speed of operation than the first generation of computers has increased by nearly a hundred times the speed of the volume of the original dozens of times.
The use of computer algorithmic languages began on the software side.
This generation of computers was used not only for scientific computing, but also for data processing and transaction processing and industrial control.
3. The third generation of electronic computersThe third generation of computers was from 1965 to 1970.
The main feature of this period is to medium and small-scale integrated circuits as electronic devices, and the emergence of operating systems, so that the computer’s function is more and more strong, the application range is more and more extensive.
They are not only used for scientific computing, but also for word processing, business management, automatic control and other fields, the emergence of computer technology and communication technology combined with the information management system, can be used for production management, traffic management, intelligence retrieval and other fields.
4. The fourth generation of electronic computers, the fourth generation of computers refers to the use of large-scale integrated circuits (LSI) and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI) as the main electronic devices made of computers from 1970 onwards.
The 80386 microprocessor, for example, can integrate about 320,000 transistors on a single chip with an area of about 10mmXl0mm.
Another important branch of fourth-generation computers are microprocessors and microcomputers developed on the basis of large-scale and very large-scale integrated circuits.
Microcomputers have roughly gone through four phases: the first phase was from 1971 to 1973, with microprocessors such as the 4004, 4040, and 8008.
In 1971 Intel developed the MCS4 minicomputer (with a CPU of 4040 and a four-bit machine).
The MCS-8 model, with the 8008 as its core, was later introduced.
The second phase was from 1973 to 1977, the development and improvement phase of the microcomputer.
The microprocessors were 8080, 8085, M6800, and Z80.
The initial products were Intel’s MCS Model I-80 (CPU 8080, eight-bit machine).
The later stage had TRS-80 type (CPU as Z80) and APPLE-II type (CPU as 6502), which were popular in the world in the early eighties.
The third stage is 1978 to 1983, sixteen-bit microcomputer development stage, microprocessor 8086, 808880186, 80286, M68000, Z8000.
Microcomputer representative product is the IBM-PC (CPU for 8086).
The pinnacle products of this stage were APPLE’s Macintosh (1984) and IBM’s PC/AT286 (1986) minicomputers.
The fourth stage was the development of 32-bit microcomputers from 1983.
Microprocessors were introduced 80386, 80486.
386, 486 microcomputer is the initial product.
In 1993, Intel Corporation introduced the Pentium or P5 (Chinese translation is “Pentium”) microprocessor, which has a 64-bit internal data channel.
Now the PentiumIII (also known as P7) microprocessor has become a mainstream product, and the PentiumIV is expected to be launched in October 2000.
This shows that the performance of the microcomputer mainly depends on its core device – microprocessor (CPU) performance.
5. Fifth-generation computersThe fifth-generation computers will combine information acquisition, storage, processing, communication and artificial intelligence with formal reasoning, association, learning and interpretation capabilities.
Its system structure will break through the traditional concept of von Neumann machine to realize a high degree of parallel processing.
Two, the characteristics of the computer computer’s basic features are as follows: 1, memory capacity in the computer has a large capacity of the storage device, which can not only long-lasting storage of a large number of text, graphics, images, sound and other information materials, but also can be stored to command the computer to work the program.
2, high computational accuracy and logical judgment accuracy, it has a high precision control or high-speed operation tasks that humans can not help.
It also has the ability to make reliable judgments to realize the automation of computer work, so as to ensure that the judgment of the computer control is reliable, responsive and sensitive control.
3, high-speed processing ability it has a fantastic computing speed, its speed to reach billions of times per second and even tens of billions of times.
For example, in order to calculate the pi Wood’s approximation to 707 bits, a mathematician had spent more than ten years for this, and if the modern computer to calculate, it may be instantly completed, and at the same time can reach 2 million decimal places.
4, can automatically complete a variety of operations computer is controlled and operated by the internal, as long as the pre-programmed application program into the computer, the computer can automatically according to the steps of the program to complete the predetermined processing tasks.
1.3 computer applications and development direction a. Computer applications At present, the application of computers can be summarized as follows.
1. scientific computing (or known as numerical computing) Early computers were mainly used for scientific computing.
At present, scientific computing is still an important area of computer applications.
Such as high-energy physics, engineering design, earthquake prediction, weather forecasting, space technology, etc..
Because computers have high computing speed and precision as well as logical judgment, new disciplines such as computational mechanics, computational physics, computational chemistry, and biological cybernetics have emerged.
2. Process detection and control of the use of computers to automatically detect certain signals in the industrial production process, and the detected data into the computer, and then according to the need to process these data, such a system is known as the computer detection system.
Specifically, the intelligent instrumentation constituted by the introduction of computer technology in instrumentation, industrial automation to a higher level.
3. Information management (data processing) information management is currently the most widely used in a field of computer applications.
The use of computers to process, manage and operate any form of data, such as business management, materials management, reporting statistics, accounting calculations, information intelligence retrieval.
In recent years, many domestic organizations have been building their own management information systems (MIS); production enterprises have also begun to use manufacturing resource planning software (MRP), the commercial circulation area is gradually using electronic information exchange system (EDI), the so-called paperless trade.
4. Computer-aided systems 1) computer-aided design (CAD) refers to the use of computers to help designers to carry out engineering design, in order to improve the degree of automation of the design work, saving manpower and material resources.
Currently, this technology has been widely used in the design of electric circuits, machinery, civil engineering and construction, clothing and so on.
2) Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) refers to the use of computers for the management, control and operation of production equipment, thereby improving product quality and reducing production costs.
Shorten the production cycle, and also greatly improve the working conditions of manufacturing personnel.
3) computer-aided testing (CAT) refers to the use of computers to carry out complex and a large number of test work.
4) Computer-aided instruction (CAI) refers to the use of computers to help teachers teach and help students learn automated systems, so that students can easily and comfortably learn what they need to know from.
The future direction of computer development will be based on ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, giant, miniaturized, networked and intelligent direction.
1. giant giant means that the computer’s computing speed is higher, more storage capacity, more powerful.
Currently under development of giant computers whose computing speed can reach 10 billion times per second.
2. Miniaturization of microcomputers have entered the instruments, meters, household appliances and other small instruments and equipment, but also as the heart of the industrial control process, so that the instrumentation to achieve “intelligent”.
With the further development of microelectronics technology, notebook-type, palm-type microcomputer will be better performance-price ratio by the people’s welcome.
3. Networking with the deepening of the application of computers, especially home computers are becoming more and more popular, on the one hand, I hope that many users can share information resources, on the other hand, I also hope that the computers can communicate with each other to pass information.
Computer networks are the product of the combination of modern communications technology and computer technology.
Computer networks have been playing an increasingly important role in the management of modern enterprises, such as banking systems, commercial systems, transportation systems.
4. Intelligent computer artificial intelligence research is based on modern science.
Intelligent is an important direction in the development of computers, a new generation of computers, will be able to simulate the human sensory behavior and the mechanism of the thinking process, “see”, “listen”, “say “, “think”, “do”, with logical reasoning, learning and proof of ability.
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