How weather probe balloons collect data

How are meteorological data obtained at high altitudes?

Now the main conventional observation is still the balloon. Some of the new generation radars can provide three-dimensional reflectivity data, which can invert some information about clouds, rain, snow and hail. Lidar can detect aerosol and thin cloud data directly above the head, and can invert part of the vertical velocity. Some of the field observations have aircraft field observation data satellites can provide cloud tops, stratospheric water vapor and some other information. In general, the weather forecast model needs to be used in the temperature, humidity, pressure, wind and other conventional data or balloon observations, radar satellites and other remote sensing technology can provide some of the three-dimensional information, but into the data needed for weather forecast model there are still many difficulties. Aircraft observation is too expensive and is only used in some scientific research programs.

Data for weather forecasting is usually available through radar sounding balloons and what else?

It’s for studying the weather. Not to study air pollution.

Sounding balloons are mainly used to carry radio sounders to high altitudes in order to make detections of weather elements such as temperature, pressure, humidity and wind. Sounding balloons come in different shapes such as round and pear-shaped. Ball weight of 300 to 1500 grams (smaller rise to a certain height will be self-destructive), filled with the appropriate amount of hydrogen or helium, can rise up to 30 to 40 kilometers above the ground. High-altitude weather stations use conventional probe balloon lift speed is generally 6 to 8 m / s, about 30 kilometers up to the height of their own burst.

Sounding balloon is an important tool for mankind to study the stratosphere, in the development of meteorology and weather forecasting work plays an important role. Sounding balloon less, low cost, quick results, relative load capacity, long flight time, carrying the instrument attitude stability, high precision observation data data, short time, flexibility, casting is not affected by geographical and climatic factors. At present, although more advanced tools such as sounding rockets, meteorological radar, meteorological satellites and so on are widely used, the sounding balloon is still an indispensable tool in meteorological research, and is often used as a calibration of other detection instruments.

What is the method of measuring wind speed?

On a typhoon day, it looks as if the wind is blowing very fast. That’s when you hear weather reports that say, “Wind speed is 10 to 15 kilometers per hour.” Wind speed is easily overlooked by the general public, but for some people it is quite important to know the actual wind speed. So there are scientific ways to measure wind speed.

The first instrument to measure wind speed was invented by Hooker in England in 1667. This instrument was called a wind meter. Nowadays, there are many kinds of wind meters, the most commonly used one is to install several hemispherical aluminum cups on a straight shaft. The aluminum cups rotate with the wind. The stronger the wind, the faster they rotate. By counting the number of times the aluminum cups rotate per unit of time, you can calculate what the wind speed is.

When humans began to fly, they had to measure the speed of the wind at high altitudes. The original way to do this was to raise a weather-detecting balloon into the sky and look back with a special telescope. But this method was useless when clouds covered the balloon. By 1941 weather radar was invented. By observing the balloon with radar, the presence of clouds did not affect it at all, so it was easy to measure wind speeds high in the sky.

Mankind has long been interested in the direction of the wind. In 900 A.D., people already knew to put wind markers on the roofs of churches to show which way the wind was blowing.

How to Measure Balloon Altitude

Weather balloons have a long history and a growing number of uses. The original weather balloon was relatively simple and did not come with an instrument. It was just used to observe air currents at high altitudes. Its height was estimated based on the time of release. This kind of balloon did not have a rope to tie it down. Nowadays, some high-altitude balloons are equipped with all kinds of precision instruments to measure the height of course. This kind of balloon has a rope to hold it.

What information should be collected by meteorologists

Getting information: there are several ways to collect information, including ground-based manual observation and reporting, automatic observation, meteorological satellites, radar observation, sounding balloon observation, etc.; China Meteorological Administration (CMA) collects these meteorological data, processes them through high-performance computers, analyzes them, and then sends down all kinds of meteorological data and numerical prediction products, etc., through satellites; there are satellite receiving equipment at each meteorological station

Forecast production: the specific forecast is based on the local meteorological elements, climatic characteristics, geography and terrain, all kinds of meteorological data composed of weather maps, radar charts, satellite cloud charts, wind profile information, as well as numerical forecasts, empirical forecasts, statistical forecasts, forecasting indicators and other comprehensive analysis of the results is a complex and systematic project, not a few words can be said clearly.