What is the history table of computer development?
The history table of computer development can be divided into the following stages:
1. Ancient computing tools (14th century BC-17th century)
-The earliest counting tools for human beings: hands, branches, sticks, stones, etc.
– In the 17th century, French scientist Blaise Pascal invented a mechanical computer based on gearing technology.
2. Development of electronic computers (1940s-1970s)
-In 1946, ENIAC, the world’s first electronic digital integral computer, was born at the Moore College of the University of Pennsylvania.
– In 1949, the first stored-program computer, EDSAC, went into operation at Cambridge University.
– In the 1950s, computers used magnetic drums as memory.
-In 1953, IBM introduced the first commercial computer, the IBM 701.
-In 1958, American engineer Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit.
-In 1964, IBM introduced the third generation of computers, the IBM 360 series.
-In 1971, Intel introduced the first microprocessor, the 4004.
3. Development of personal computers (1970s-1990s)
-In 1977, Apple introduced the AppleII, which opened the era of personal computers.
-In 1980, IBM launched the IBMPC, opening the era of IBM compatibles.
-In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh, opening the home computer market.
– In the 1980s, the operating systems DOS and Windows were introduced.
4. The Dawn of the Internet Age (1990s-Present)
– In the early 1990s, the Internet became popular.
-In 1994, Netscape launched Navigator, the first browser, to accelerate the development of the Internet.
-In 1995, Microsoft launched Windows 95 with built-in InternetExplorer, boosting the development of Web applications.
-The 2000s saw the rise of smartphones and tablets, further expanding the application scenarios for computers.
5. The dawn of the artificial intelligence and big data era (early 21st century-present)
-In 2006, multi-core processors were introduced to provide more computing power for big data and artificial intelligence.
-In 2006, Amazon launched AmazonWebServices (AWS), ushering in the era of cloud computing.
-In the 2010s, AI technologies such as deep learning and neural networks made important breakthroughs, driving the development of artificial intelligence.
The above is a brief overview of the history table of the development of computers, from ancient computing tools to electronic computers, to personal computers, the network era and the era of artificial intelligence, computer technology continues to evolve, and has a profound impact on human life.
Basic Computer Knowledge Primer
I. Computer Development
In 1956, the transistor electronic computer was born, which is the second generation of electronic computers. As long as a few larger cabinets can accommodate it, the speed of computing has been greatly improved. 1959 appeared is the third generation of integrated circuit computers.
The original computer was invented by John von Neumann (at that time, computers had the computing power of today’s calculators) and was the size of three storehouses, and then gradually developed.
Starting in the 1970s, this was the latest stage in the development of computers. By 1976, made of large-scale integrated circuits and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, “Clay I”, the computer into the fourth generation. The invention of ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, so that the computer is constantly towards miniaturization, miniaturization, low-power, intelligent, systematic direction of renewal.
In the 1990s, the computer to the “intelligent” direction, the manufacture of computers similar to the human brain, thinking, learning, memory, network communications and other work.
Entering the 21st century, the computer is a laptop, miniaturization and specialization, computing speed of more than 1 million times per second, not only easy to operate, inexpensive, and can replace some of the people’s mental work, and even in some ways to expand the human intelligence. Thus, today’s micro-computer is figuratively called a computer.
The world’s first personal computer was launched in 1980 by IBM, which introduced Intel’s x86 hardware architecture and Microsoft’s MS-DOS operating system for personal computers, and formulated PC/AT as the specification for PCs. The development of Intel’s microprocessors and Microsoft’s operating system has since been almost identical to the development of the PC, and the Wintel architecture has completely replaced IBM’s dominant position in the PC.
From the type of computer, mode of operation, component devices, operating principles, application conditions, etc., there are a variety of computer classification.
From the data representation, computers can be divided into digital computers, analog computers, and hybrid computers;
Digital computers according to the composition of the device division, there have been mechanical computers and electromechanical computers, electronic computers are now being used in the study of optical computers, quantum computers, biocomputers, neurocomputers and so on.
Electronic computers in terms of its size or system function, can be divided into giant, large, medium-sized, small, microcomputers and monolithic.
In summary, the classification of computers is as follows:
(1)Classification according to performance indicators
①Jumbo: high speed, large capacity
②Large: fast, applied to military and technical research areas
③Small: simple structure, low cost, outstanding performance-price ratio
④Micro: Small size, light weight, low price
(2) according to the use of classification
① dedicated machine: targeted, specific services, specialized design
② general-purpose machine: scientific computing, data processing, process control to solve various problems
(3) according to the principle of classification
① digital machine: fast, high precision, automation, general-purpose
① digital machine: fast, high precision, automation, general-purpose
① digital machine: fast, high precision, automation, general-purpose
① digital machine: fast, high accuracy, automation, general-purpose
② analog machine: analog as the amount of operations, fast, poor accuracy
③ hybrid machine: the first two advantages, to avoid the shortcomings of the two, is in the development stage
Three, the basic composition of the computer system
No matter what kind of computers, they are made up of hardware and software, the two are inseparable. People refer to a computer without any software installed as a barebones computer.
②Central Processing Unit – Controller and Operator
③External Devices – I/O Devices
The software system of a computer can be divided into two parts: system software and application software.
Computer software systems include:
②database management system
⑤standard program library
Four, the composition of the hardware system and the main function of each component
The computer system can be divided into two parts. /p>
The electronic circuits and physical devices used in a computer system are visible and tangible entities, such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, external devices (input/output devices, I/O devices) and buses.
①Memory. The main function is to store the program and data, the program is the basis for computer operation, data is the object of computer operation. Memory is composed of storage, address decoder, read/write control circuit, address bus and data bus. Can be directly accessed by the central processor random access instructions and data memory called main memory, disk, tape, CD-ROM and other mass memory called external memory (or auxiliary memory). By the main memory, external memory and the corresponding software, composed of computer storage system.
②The main function of the central processor is to perform the operations specified in the program, line by line, according to the program in the memory. The main components of the central processor are: data registers, instruction registers, instruction decoders, arithmetic logic components, operation controllers, program counters (instruction address counters), and address registers.
3) External devices are the bridge between the user and the machine. Input devices are tasked with converting various forms of information such as data, characters, text, graphics and programs that the user requires the computer to process into a coded form acceptable to the computer for deposit into the computer. The task of the output device is to computer processing results in the form of user needs (such as screen display, text printing, graphic charts, language audio, etc.) output. Input and output interfaces are buffer devices between external devices and the central processor, responsible for the matching of electrical performance and information format conversion.
Computer basic knowledge points summarized
Computer grade test as one of the contemporary college students must take the subject, what are its basic knowledge points. The following is the “computer foundation knowledge points summarized summary”, only for reference, welcome to read.
Summary of basic computer knowledge points
The development of computers, types and their application areas
1, computer (computer)
Computer (computer) is a kind of automatic, high-speed electronic equipment for a large number of arithmetic and logical operations. Characterized by: high speed, high precision, large storage capacity, versatility, logical judgment and automatic control capabilities.
2, the first computer
ENIAC, the United States, in 1946, the University of Pennsylvania von Neumann “stored program” and “program control”.
3. The core points of von Neumann’s ideas are:
1) The basic structure of a computer should be composed of five major components: operator, controller, memory, input devices and output devices.
2) Data and instructions should be represented in binary form in computers.
3) The “stored program” and “program control” mode of operation.
4. Main features
Fast operation speed, high accuracy, memory and logical judgment.
5, the main applications of computers
Scientific calculations: for example: weather forecasting, monitoring of Iraqi missiles in the Gulf War.
Data processing: for example: the college entrance examination enrollment in the admission of candidates and statistical work, railroads, air ticket reservation system, business management of the banking system.
Computer-aided systems: for example: CAI demonstration of chemical reactions.
Artificial Intelligence: for example: instead of humans to work in dangerous environments.
Applications in office automation systems: e.g., Internet to send emails.
CBE: Computer-aided education.
CAI: Computer Assisted Instruction.
CMI:Computer Managed Instruction.
CAD:Computer Aided Design.
CAT:Computer Aided Translation.
CAM:Computer Aided Manufacturing.
CAE:Computer Aided Engineering.
6, the classification of computers
1) According to the size of the classification: jumbo, mainframe, microcomputer, workstation, server.
2) According to the use of classification: general-purpose computers, specialized computers.
3) According to the type of data processed by the computer: analog computer, digital computer, digital and analog computer.
Expanded reading: the concept, composition and classification of computer networks
1, the definition of a computer network
Computer network refers to the use of communications equipment and lines to geographically different functions, multiple computer systems interconnected to a well-functioning network software to achieve the system of resource sharing and information exchange in the network.
“Resource sharing” is a function of the computer network, resources include computer hardware resources and software resources.
2, the main functions of computer networks
Resource sharing (basic) information exchange distributed processing centralized management.
3, the classification of computer networks
1) according to the size, distance classification: local area network (LAN), metropolitan area network (MAN), wide area network (WAN).
2) According to the network operating system classification: NIX network, NOVELL network, WindowsNT network.
3) Classified according to the information transmission technology: broadcast network, point-to-point network.
4) Classified according to the connection mode: bus type, star type, ring type, tree type and hybrid type.
4, the basic components of a computer network
Network operating systems, network adapters (network cards), network cables (network cables), servers and workstations.
Specialized basic computer knowledge points summarized
Chapter 1 information technology and computer culture
1 information: refers to the nature, human activities and human thinking activities in the prevalence of all material and the properties of things (stored in the form of data on the computer)
2 data: symbolic information stored on some kind of media to be identified (stored in binary on the computer)
3. file: a set of relevant information stored on the external memory collection
4. now society’s three major resources – matter, energy, information
4. File: a collection of related information stored on external memory
4. The three main resources of society nowadays – matter, energy, and information
5. The world’s first computer: the ENIAC 1946 University of Pennsylvania Decimal
6. .Von Neumann – the father of the computer, put forward the principle of working with stored programs
7. Turing Award – the Nobel Prize in the computer world
The first generation of electronic tubes machine language, assembly language
Computer development, according to the components are divided into the second generation of transistor high-level programming language
Third generation of integrated circuits appeared operating system
Fourth generation of ultra-large-scale integrated circuits
9. Computer applications
10. Computer development trends: gigantic, miniaturized, grid, intelligent
11. Logical operations: and (∧), or (∨), not (￣), different or (+)
12. Data unit: 1G = 1024MB1M = 1024KB1KB = 1204B1B = 8bite
13. Character encoding ASCII, 8 bits to represent a character, the highest bit is always 0, so only 7 bits are used to represent 128 characters. The ASCII value of the same letter is 32 (20H) larger than the upper case letter
Chinese character exchange code GBK18030 two consecutive bytes represent a Chinese character
Chinese character coding machine code to change the Chinese character exchange code 2 bytes of the highest bit to 1
Chinese character code dot-matrix code, vector code
Input code sound code, code, running code, sound-format Combined code
14. computer architecture
15. program: an ordered collection of instructions designed to solve a problem consisting of a series of instructions
bus: data bus, address bus, control bus
16. computer language assembly language compilation language assembly machine language
High-level languageHigh-level languageCompiled machine language
17.CPU parameters: main frequency, word length (the number of binary bits that a computer can process at one time)
Sound mp3midwavwmaBitmap: bright colors, zoom distortion, large amount of data
18.Multimedia graphicsjpgbmpgifVector graphics: Color is not bright, zoom distortion, small amount of data
motion picture mpegrmrmvbavi3gpmp4
19. multimedia compression technology
Chapter 2 operating system
1. operating system features:
①processor management ② storage management ③devices Management ④ file management ⑤ network and communication management ⑥ user interface
2. Operating system classification:
① batch operating system ② time-sharing ~ ~ ~ ~ ③ real-time ~ ~ ~ ④ embedded ~ ~ ~ ⑤ personal computer ~ ~ ~ ~ ⑥ network ~ ~ ~ ~ ⑦ distributed ~ ~ ~
DOS (diskoperationsystem): a single-user, single-tasking
3. >3. common operating system Windowsxp: single-user multi-tasking
Unix: multi-user time-sharing operating system
4. file naming principles: the length of no more than 255 characters, can not use ? */>< file attributes: hidden, read-only, archive, system
5. Select multiple consecutive files – shiftAlt + F4
Select multiple discontinuous files – Ctrl File / Close
Copy the screen – PrintScreen close the file method stand-alone top right X
Copy the current window – Alt + PrintScreenAlt → F → X
soft return (forced line feed, not segmented) – Shift + Enter Task Manager
Chapter 3 word
1. word view: ordinary, page view (default, the same as the print result, show paging effect), outline view, web layout, reading layout view < /p>
2. Header and footer can not be entered with the document, but set up separately, header and footer can only be seen in page view
Home cursor to the beginning of the current line
End cursor to the end of the current line
PageUp page forward
PageDown page backward
Ctrl + ←Shift left an English word or Chinese character
3. Shortcut Ctrl+→Shift right an English word or Chinese character
Ctrl+HomeShift to the beginning of the file
Ctrl+EndShift to the end of the file
4word template File extension .dot
5. Word features: the production of tables, graphics, formatting documents, web page production
7. Word underline: text underline, paragraph underline
8. Pictures around the way: embedded, around the type, tight, floating above the text, lined with the text underneath the top and bottom type of surround, through the type of surround
9. Clipboard is a temporary storage area in memory
Menu (Format ¡ú Paragraph)
10. Paragraph indentation horizontal ruler (drag the horizontal ruler)
Toolbar (increase, decrease the amount of indentation)
Chapter IV Excel
1. Excel features: database management (relational), table production, charting functions
2. Each worksheet has 65536 × 256 cells, after the start of the default open 3 worksheets, but this number can be freely set (1 ~ 255)
3. Excel each line is called a record, a column is called a field
4. Cells: rows and columns in the worksheet in the intersection of the part of the maximum limit for each cell (215) -1), the cell can only show 210, edit the column in order to show all
5. will be the number of text input, with ‘digital’ (that is, the number of single quotes to enclose); lose fractions when the first to lose a 0 plus a space, such as: 02/3; date separator with / or -, time with:, such as 2008-10-2 or 2008/10/ 210:20
Pure numbers, text-based: copy (Ctrl + drag the number of automatic plus 1)
6. Fill (mouse drag fill handle) letters plus numbers: the number of self-incremental 1, the letters remain unchanged, such as A1 → A2A3A4A5
Date: self-incremental 1, 2008/10/2→2008/10/3 (ctrl + drag to copy) )
7. Data Clear (selected cells after pressing Del): Clear cell contents (data, format, notes)
Data Delete: data and cells are deleted to delete rows or columns, the next line to the right of the columns are automatically moved to fill the gap
8. Absolute reference: the reference does not change with the location of the formula, such as $ B $ 2
Relative reference: Cited with the formula position changes (default) such as B2
Mixed references: both absolute and relative references contain references such as $ B2, B $ 2
9. Calculation of the form through the function to achieve. Common functions – Summation: Sum Average: average Count: count Conditional count: countif Rank: rank Maximum Maximum Minimum: min
10. Excel charts are divided into two categories
Embedded: charts and data in the same work Charts and data in the same worksheet
Stand-alone: charts are placed in another worksheet
Charts can be modified after creation. Worksheet data changes, the chart will change dynamically
11. Excel in the data must be sorted before the classification of the summary
12. Excel data list has a database function, you can realize the data sorting, filtering, classification of the summary, statistics, query
13. cells show ” #####” – column width is not enough “# VALUE” – the value of the error
14. Text connectors: & ;, such as computer & culture = computer culture
Chapter 5 Powerpoint
1. Powerpoint features: making presentations
Ordinary view (slides, outlines, notes) the main editing view
2. Powerpoint view Slide Browsing view is mainly used to Add, delete, move between slides and add switching effects
Slide show view can only be viewed, can not be modified
3. Appearance design methods: ① application design templates ② master ③ color scheme
4. Office Alignment
Powerpoint, Word: left-aligned, right-aligned, centered alignment, Align Both Ends, Disperse Align
Excel: Left Align, Right Align, Center Align
5. Slides that are set to be hidden can also be printed when printing
6. Hyperlinks can be linked to: ① the original document or web page ② the location of this document ③ new document ④ email address
7. Master: Used to set up the preset formatting of each slide, including each slide Preset format, including the title of each slide, the body of the text location and size, bullet style, background pattern, sub: design master, handout master, notes master
8. ppt file can be packaged in the absence of the installation of Powerpoint run on the computer (select the “File / Packaging “, the default contains the file and Powerpoint player)
9. end of the screening method: ① press the ESC key ② right mouse button / end of the screening ③ press the Enter key
Chapter VI database
1. basic concepts
① data: a symbolic record describing the things that are stored in a database basic object
② database: stored in the computer, organized, shareable collection of data
③ database management system: a system software to complete the scientific organization, storage, access, and maintenance of databases
④ database system: including databases, database management systems, application systems, database administrators, users
2. Keyword (primary key): a field used to uniquely identify each record in a table
3. Access is a database software developed by Microsoft in Office, with the extension .mdb
Table: stores data, a database contains multiple tables, which are both independent of each other and interconnected
Query: retrieve by index Data
Forms: easy to browse, enter and change the data window
4. Access2003 Object Report: the data will be categorized and summarized and printed out
Web page: a form of web page, you can view, modify the data in the database
Macro: automatic execution of a series of operations
Templates: used in the programming
5. Access is a relational database, as well as object-oriented programming and design capabilities
Chapter VII Computer Networks
1. Physical connection to a computer network consists of a computer system, communication links and network nodes, logically computer networks are divided into communication sub-networks and resource sub-networks
2. Resource sharing ③ distributed processing ④ to improve system reliability
3. Network division
4. OSI (development of system interconnection development model) model: (remember the names of the layers, the role of understanding on the line, do not need to memorize)
Application layer: what to do, such as sending an e-mail
Representation layer: data conversion, compression, encryption of high-level
Session layer: data conversion, compression, encryption of high-level
Session layer: the data, the data, the data, the data, the data, the data, the data, the data and the information. p>Session layer: management and coordination of data transmission
Transport layer: establish a route that will not go wrong, to ensure that there is no difference in transmission
Network layer: select the appropriate route
Data link layer: data checksums, to ensure that there are no errors
Physical layer: to provide a physical connection, such as fiber optics or cables to connect to the network underlying
(An analogy. Two companies to sign a contract, the application layer is the boss to decide the content of the contract; representation layer is the secretary of what format, language, way to write out the content of the contract;
session layer is the lower level of discussion when, who sends the contract, the transmission layer is a department of the two companies to establish contact between the two companies to ensure that the contract is safe and smooth sent to each other’s companies, if the contract
with the loss of the contract to resend; network layer is to determine the other party to send the contract to the other company, to ensure that the contract is safe and smooth. Re-send; network layer is to determine the location of the other company, and choose to go that way to transmit documents; data link layer to determine the road specific to each intersection how
to go; the physical layer to determine what means of transportation to transmit documents, is a car or a train)
5. TCP/IP model: network interface layer, the inter-network layer, the transport layer, the application layer (from the bottom to the higher level of the order)
6. Network devices
8. Transmission medium
9. IP address = network address + host address
10. Top-level domains: international domain names, generic domain names, ccTLDs
Commonly used organizations Domain names: cn (China) com (commercial organizations org (other organizations) e (educational institutions) gov (government departments)
mil (military) net (major network support centers) int (international organizations)
11. Firewall defects: ① can not protect against attacks without a firewall ② can not prevent the transmission of software or files infected with viruses ③ can not Prevent data-driven attacks
12. Computer viruses
① Concept: the preparation or inserted in the computer program to disrupt the function of the computer or destroy data, affecting the use of the computer and can be self-replicating set of computer instructions
order or program code
② Characteristics: executable, destructive, contagious, latent, targeting, derivatives, anti-virus software
③ classification: boot zone viruses, file-based viruses, hybrid viruses, macro viruses
13. Trojan horse is not a virus, because the Trojan horse is not contagious